Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Presbyterian Research Centre, Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Hours in Dutch

July 14, 2014 § 1 Comment

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Presbyterian Research Centre, Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, formerly Knox College (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 118), Book of Hours in Dutch, Netherlands, second quarter fifteenth century.[1]

A. H. Reed purchased this manuscript in 1920 and gave it to the college. It was one of his earliest gifts. The manuscript is in a contemporary binding of polished calf that has been described meticulously by de Hamel. Perhaps its most interesting feature from our point-of-view is that, as he comments in a letter kept with the manuscript, it is probably the oldest binding in New Zealand. Its only rival might be the Selwyn College Malogranatum,[2]though we would also note that the recycled boards on Auckland Public Libraries MS G. 143, described earlier, could well be from an even earlier binding.

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours -- marks from catches

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours — marks from catches

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours -- marks from clasps

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours — marks from clasps

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours --indentations from clasps (detail 1)

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours –indentations from clasps (detail 1)

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours -- indentations from clasps (detail 2)

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours — indentations from clasps (detail 2)

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours -- double bands

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours — double bands

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours -- blind ruling and stamping

Dunedin, Hewitson Library, Hours — blind ruling and stamping

Thanks to the Hewitson Library for permission to reproduce the photographs.

 

[1] See also Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, ed. Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007), pp. 12, 18.

[2] Manion, Vines, and de Hamel, No. 128.

Auckland, St John’s College MS 1, Bible, Germany

March 16, 2014 § Leave a comment

Auckland, St John’s College MS 1 (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 49), Bible, Germany, fourteenth century.[1]

This is the binding and part of the text of the so-called Bischewo Bible, acquired by A. W. Reed around 1925. It is in a modern binding structure, but on this has been “mounted” the old, late fifteenth- or sixteenth-century boards that formed one of its early bindings. These boards are covered in tanned calf (once a rich dark brown, but blackened over time). The cover has been extensively tooled. The decoration is described in detail by Manion, Vines, and de Hamel: the binder used panels, stamps, rolls, and “fillets” (roll tools used to create decorative rules). Images of Adam and Eve, the crucifixion, and the brazen serpent are matched by words “PER ADAM MORS”, “PER CHRIST. VITA”, and “NUM. 21”.

We can add detail to Manion, Vines, and de Hamel’s description of the “metal fittings” on the book. These are very elaborate. The book had two fastenings, which closed in the German fashion, so that the catch plates appear on the edge of the upper board. Indentations show that there were also anchor plates but these and the straps and hook-clasps they bore are missing. The catch plates have been decorated with a pattern of engraved lines and turned circles. Their mechanism is comparable to that depicted in Szirmai, Figure 9.47 [a]. The book also had brass corner guards and strips of brass forming protective guards all around its edges (some now missing). The corner guards comprise a separate boss attached to a single nail (visible in the case of one guard on the upper board where the boss has come off) mounted on a corner piece made from sheet metal (see Szirmai, Fig. 9.55 [1] and [8]-[9]).

It is of note that the binder nowhere prepared the board for the fastenings or furnishings, and that where these have been lost the cover is decorated. This suggests that the metal fittings were added after the book was bound, and not necessarily by the binder who applied and decorated the cover. Extensive furnishing of this sort was most common for “frequently used works and books to which the public had access”.[2] Also of note are fragments of paper from an early printed book that appears to have been used to reinforce the binding in some way – perhaps as pastedowns. The words that are visible on these fragments are in a “gothic” – textualis — fount.

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Opening page

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Opening page

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Boss and catch plate

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Boss and catch plate

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Binding

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Binding

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Upper board

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Upper board

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Fragment of early printing

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Fragment of early printing

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Catch plate detail

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Catch plate detail

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Boss detail

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Boss detail

Auckland, St. John's College MS 1 - Indentation caused by lost anchor plate

Auckland, St. John’s College MS 1 – Indentation caused by lost anchor plate

Thanks for the John Kinder Theological Library, Auckland, for permission to use the photographs, and to Helen Greenwood for her help.

 


[1] See also Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, ed. Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007), pp. 18-19, 37-38, 40, and Ian Dougherty, Boots and Books: The Story of New Zealand Publisher, Writer and Long Distance Walker, Alfred Hamish Reed (Dunedin: Otago University Press, 2005), p. 112.

[2] J. A. Szirmai, The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Farnham: Ashgate, 1999), p. 263.

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim, Sermones

March 7, 2014 § Leave a comment

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, on deposit in Otago University Library (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 130), Conrad of Brundelsheim, Sermones, Germany, fourteenth/fifteenth centuries.

This is the only medieval binding in New Zealand with a cover made of tawed pigskin rather than calf or sheep (pigskin has a particularly distinctive pattern of hair follicles, larger follicles in groups of three amid a dispersion of very small follicles—see Szirmai, Fig. 9.34 [b]).[1] Pigskin first becomes a common binding material on German books of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and is more common there than on books from other regions.[2]

In this case, the cover is on two flat wooden boards, with slightly beveled edges: the boards are attached to the textblock by three double, tawed supports, which pass over the outer edge of the boards in the typical late medieval style. The cover has a decorative pattern of intersecting triple-blind rules. This book no longer has a chain, or remains of a chain, attached; but there are “marks from a chain hasp at top centre” of the lower board.[3] The manuscript is also interesting because it recycles early manuscript material in the form of binder’s waste, containing in the front a strip of vellum (bound upside-down). Our description here follows that of Manion, Vines, and De Hamel closely, but we can add that we were able to identify the leaves as from a Psalter, with the remains of Psalms 65:9-67:5.

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim - binder's waste

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim – binder’s waste

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim - double tawed support

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim – double tawed support

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim - general view of boards

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim – general view of boards

 Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim - pigskin follicles

Dunedin, Selwyn College, Shoults Collection, Conrad of Brundelsheim – pigskin follicles

Thanks to Otago University and Selwyn College for permission to reproduce the photographs, and to Donald Kerr, Special Collections.

 


[1] J. A. Szirmai, The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Farnham: Ashgate, 1999), 227.

[2] See R. Reed, Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers (London and New York: Seminar Press, 1972), figure 17.

[3] Manion, Vines, and de Hamel, 115.

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15, Part of St Matthew’s Gospel

February 6, 2014 § Leave a comment

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 133); part of St Matthew’s Gospel, glossed, Italy, mid twelfth century.[1]

This is one of the manuscripts acquired by the then British and Foreign Bible Society in 1932 from Masterton printer Albert Clemas (who had purchased it a few years earlier in London) and now on loan to the Alexander Turnbull Library.[2]

The binding is fifteenth-century. The cover is now gone, leaving the beveled wooden boards bare. The quires are sewn onto three double, tawed thongs, which were once stained crimson. They were laced directly into the boards’ edges and emerged in small straight channels in the outer face of the boards, where they were secured using iron nails. There are two endbands—plain stitching over single, red-stained, tawed cores which were laced in a similar style at the corner of the boards. A piece of white tawed leather has been used to line the spine where the stitching for these endbands enters the quires.

If the book ever had a cover, its disappearance while many other features of the binding remain intact may suggest it was textile. A tiny fragment of textile adhered to the inner face of the upper board, and the smooth surface of the boards adds to this supposition: the surfaces of wooden boards were roughened in various ways to improve the adhesion of leather covers.[3] If the cover were textile, then it would have matched the book’s silk fastenings nicely. Fragments of the green silk straps are visible on the upper cover, fixed into grooves cut in the boards by three radiating ornamental brass nails. The hooks do not survive; the catches are on the lower board, as is often the case with Italian books; they have a simple trefoil shape very similar to Szirmai’s Fig. 9.54 [i], an Italian type. They are embossed: the letter “s” is used twice on the upper catchplate, and once on the lower, with a small floral stamp.

Two endleaves from a medieval manuscript survive. They are palimpsests; the manuscript that was used was copied in a late medieval documentary (i.e. cursive) hand with red capitals but the text is illegible.

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - endband

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – endband

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - endleaf with palimpsest

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – endleaf with palimpsest

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - fragment of green silk strap

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – fragment of green silk strap

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - remains of crimson tawed thongs

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – remains of crimson tawed thongs

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - bevelled wooden board with catchplates and thongs

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – bevelled wooden board with catchplates and thongs

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 - catchplate with letters

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-15 – catchplate with letters

Images here are reproduced by kind permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library; thanks especially to Ruth Lightbourne for her assistance.


[1] See Hollis and Barratt, “Introduction: The Formation and Reception of Medieval Manuscript Collections in New Zealand,” in Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, ed. Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007), 17; Christopher de Hamel, “The Bible: Illuminating the Word,” in The Medieval Imagination: Illuminated Manuscripts from Cambridge, Australia, and New Zealand, ed. Bronwyn Stocks and Nigel J. Morgan (South Yarra: Macmillan, 2008), 19-23 (22).

[2] See Hollis and Barratt, “Introduction,” 16-17.

[3] J. A. Szirmai, The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Farnham: Ashgate, 1999), 230.

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588, Antiphonal

February 6, 2014 § Leave a comment

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989),  no. 40), Antiphonal, Italy, sixteenth century.[1]

The binding of this book is at least its second—an earlier set of sewing holes is visible in the quire folds (see for example fols 132-3). Manion, Vines, and de Hamel describe it as bound “in post-medieval calf over wooden boards (re-covered but possibly using original boards and fittings).”[2] They note the use of leaves from several medieval manuscripts for fly leaves (an early twelfth-century Italian copy of the Latin life of St Donatus; a late twelfth/thirteenth-century Italian Missal; and a sixteenth-century Italian choirbook). From the same evidence we conclude that the present binding is in large part sixteenth-century, contemporary or near contemporary with the manuscript itself, despite later conservation work—which means that it falls within our definition of “medieval” bindings.

Several features of the binding are of note. It is a very large book and bound in two heavy wooden boards (260 x 370 mm and >15mm thick).  The edges of these boards are beveled all around, including at the spine edge; the boards are otherwise flat. The cover is tooled, ruled blind using finely patterned fillets and small stamps—single leaves and trefoils—appear in corners of the lozenges created by the rules and surrounding the metal furnishings. The book has two strap and pin-style fastenings. These close from the lower to the upper board (as was sometimes the case in Italian bindings). The book has also been fitted with five bosses at the corners and at the centre of both the upper and lower boards. One of these, from the upper board, has come away from the book and is kept in a separate box. Each boss is set on a small plate of metal, the whole structure fashioned from a single sheet of brass (contrast our upcoming blogpost on Auckland, St John’s College MS, where similar bosses were separately cast and mounted on a sheet). The book also has small plain brass “heels” on the edges of the boards at both head and tail.

The book has a headband, simply stitched in plain thread over a brown leather core. It has not been laced into the boards, though this may be the result of later repair/recovering of the book. Instead, a few stitches affix it to the leather covering the spine. In this sense it resembles a “glued-on” endband in that it is a purely decorative feature (see the blog posts on Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-26 and the Canterbury Sallust).

Emerging from the spine of the book are eight linen bookmarkers, now mostly in faded beige thread, but with some indications that they were once dyed green and yellow. We were unable to determine how this device was attached by the binder.  Bookmarks of this kind appear in art of the late medieval period quite commonly but only rarely in books themselves. Similar bookmarks can be seen, for example, in the famous image of St Jerome removing a thorn from the lion’s paw, c.1445 (oil on panel) by Niccolo Antonio Colantonio, now in the Museo e Gallerie Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy (a book with linen markers resembling the ones we have here appears on one of the shelves behind Jerome).[3] Several books in Exeter Cathedral Library in England contain similar bookmarks, made from long strips of tawed leather rather than linen cords (for example, Exeter Cathedral MS 3515 which has a five-tailed leather marker, the upper end of which was stitched into the leather cover over the spine).

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - boss detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – boss detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - flyleaf and pastedown

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – flyleaf and pastedown

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - bookmarkers

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – bookmarkers

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - bookmarkers and endband

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – book markers and endband

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - heel detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – heel detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - clasp detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – clasp detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - tooling detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – tooling detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - endband markers detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – endband  and markers detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - bosses and clasps

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – bosses and clasps

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 - front pastedown

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 – front                   pastedown


[1] See also Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, ed. Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007), 60.

[2] Manion, Vines, and de Hamel, 70.

[3] Another medieval depiction, from a woodcut, is described by Frank X. Roberts, “On Marking Books: A Medieval Scribe at Work,” accessed 1 June 2012.

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287, Pierre d’Ailly, Meditationes super Septem Psalmos Penitentiales

February 6, 2014 § Leave a comment

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 36), Pierre d’Ailly, Meditationes super Septem Psalmos Penitentiales, France, second half of the fifteenth century.[1]

When this book was purchased by Henry Shaw in 1905, the bookseller’s catalogue description highlighted its “original binding of oak boards covered with ornamentally stamped leather.”[2] The book is bound on five double, tawed supports which have been laced into its two wooden boards over the top of the outer face of each board. The edges of the boards are beveled. The leather used for the cover is tanned sheepskin; it has been decorated within two frames of four blind rules. The tooling is described in detail by Manion, Vines, and de Hamel. Of special note is the “roll-tool of double half-rosettes interfilled with quatrefoils” that they describe. Roll tools were, much like panel stamps, an earlier medieval invention that took hold in the context of printing, late in the fifteenth-century and especially in the sixteenth; like panels, they enabled binders to decorate large spaces of covers quickly.[3] The book once had two fastenings, affixed to the top and bottom of the outer edge of each board, but only the holes left by nails and plates in the leather and boards now remain.

Also of interest here, in part because it is something of a contrast to the quite elaborate tooling of the cover and the use of five supports, are the book’s two endbands. These are composed of a very narrow (> 5mm diameter) core of tawed leather sewn with plain thread. The result is rather flimsy, and the attachment of the endbands to the quires is “abbreviated”—we can see only five threads attaching each band to the fifteen quires of the textblock. (More elaborate and sturdy medieval endbands were often sewn into every quire.) Like the roll, the abbreviation of endband attachment was a way to speed up the binding process, and is seen more commonly in the late fifteenth century and the era of print than earlier in the Middle Ages.[4] Endbands with abbreviated sewing were a harbinger of the “glued-on” endbands that also begin to appear in this period, providing decoration but no structural function to the book—see our blogposts on Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.1588 and Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-26, and the discussion of Canterbury University Library manuscript of Sallust’s De Bello Jurgurthino in our Script & Print article, pp. 215-7.

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – endband

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – endband

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – endband2

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – endband and double supports

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – original wooden boards

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – original            wooden boards

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – tooling and remains of clasps

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – tooling and remains of clasps

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – tooling detail

Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS S.287 – tooling detail


[1] See also Migrations: Medieval Manuscripts in New Zealand, ed. Stephanie Hollis and Alexandra Barratt (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2007), 5, 63 and 186.

[2] Donald Kerr, “Sir George Grey and Henry Shaw,” in Migrations, ed. Hollis and Barratt, 49-71 (64).

[3] J. A. Szirmai, The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Farnham: Ashgate, 1999), 243-45.

[4] Nicholas Pickwoad, “Onward and Downward: How Bookbinders Coped with the Printing Press 1500-1800,” in A Millennium of the Book: Production, Design and Illustration in Manuscript and Print, 900-1900, ed. Robin Myers and Michael Harris (Winchester: St Paul’s Bibliographies, 1994), 61-106 (80-85).

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library, MSR-28, Rental of the Italian abbey of San Gregorio

February 6, 2014 § Leave a comment

Wellington, Alexander Turnbull Library, MSR-28, formerly MS Papers 1620 (Margaret M. Manion, Vera F. Vines, and Christopher de Hamel, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in New Zealand Collections (Melbourne, London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1989), no. 158); rental of the Italian abbey of San Gregorio, Rimini, Italy, c.1487.

This is a twelve-page memorandum dated 22 August 1487, written in a beautiful italic hand by a Brother John Matthias of Bologna. It concerns the repossession of land because of unpaid rent or the absence of direct heirs. The book comprises three parchment bifolia. Each of these has been attached individually to the parchment cover by long stitches (see the discussion of Auckland Libraries, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Med. MS G.127 and Alexander Turnbull Library MSR-03, in our Script & Print articles, pp. 202-7). There is some evidence—extra holes in the fold that serves as “spine” of the book—to suggest that the stitching that is visible now is not original, though it does seem that a similar kind of archival sewing technique has been replicated in the later repair/resewing. The binding could of course be later than the document itself, but not much later: to survive in such a good condition, the six folios would always have needed some protection.

There is evidence that the materials used for compiling this little book were prepared as for a “ledger”: that is, the leaves and the cover have been folded at the centre (to allow for book-keeping uses) though the rental itself is single column. The outer face of the cover has been used for calculations over the years. Manion, Vines, and de Hamel identify the arms of the Olivetan (Benedictine) order, roughly drawn on the outside of the upper cover. Additionally, a set of concentric circles have been scored into the parchment of the inner face of the upper cover. We cannot account for this, but have seen it on similarly bound books elsewhere, for example, Westminster Abbey MS 34/5, an Oxford student’s notebook, also limp bound, also from the last quarter of the fifteenth century.

There is only limited literature on archival or “stationery” bindings on small documents of this kind, almost all of it by conservationists.[1] Such bindings must have been a very common way for people to encounter textual material in the Middle Ages. Texts-in-progress and short texts that had yet to find their way into larger miscellanies probably began their lives as just such simply-bound manuscript “booklets”.[2]

Turnbull Library MSR-28 - italic hand

Turnbull Library MSR-28 – italic hand

Turnbull Library MSR-28 - outer face notes

Turnbull Library MSR-28 – outer face notes

Images here are reproduced by kind permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library; thanks especially to Ruth Lightbourne for her assistance.


[1] J. A. Szirmai, The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Farnham: Ashgate, 1999), 309-11, discusses ledger bindings in detail, but this term describes a particular species of archival binding not seen here. For useful examples from the same period as this book, see Holly Robertson, “Spanish Archival Bindings, 1300-1800,” accessed 1 June 2012, http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~hollyr/portfolio/spain/archival-bindings/2004-16.html#se.

[2] Pamela R. Robinson, ‘The ‘Booklet’: A Self-Contained Unit in Composite Manuscripts’, Codicologica 3 (1980), 46–69; Alexandra Gillespie, “Medieval Books, Their Booklets, and Booklet Theory,” English Manuscript Studies 16 (2011), 1-29.

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